Saturday, 24 February 2018

Science for Ladies - Part Two

Welcome back.  I hope you had a pleasant interval.  Now we have much to discuss in part two of this series.

As you might recall, my name is Elektra.  I was, until recently, known as Amber.

You might also recall that part one of this series was devoted mainly to electrons and elections.

In this part, we will mainly discuss electricity, light, sound, water, magnetism, electoral systems and sensible policies.

Like Caroline Herschel, you may have occasionally discovered a strange light in the sky.  Are you an astronomer?

There have been many female astronomers and astrophysicists.

We have also reached number 32 in the Mozarty Party Climatologically Cool 100 countdown.  You may or may not know that this ethereal theatre is likely to close to ordinary mortals once the countdown is completed.

In making this announcement, it appears apt, therefore, that the next work in the countdown is Piano Concerto No. 24 in C minor, K. 491.  Mozart composed it in late 1785 and early 1786, for a first performance in early April 1786.  He was 30 years of age by that time.

Piano Concerto No. 23 has already been part of this countdown.

Ladies are obviously keen to uphold democracy whilst preventing corruption and the death penalty.  They have no time at all for oligarchs, tacky salespeople, bullies and impertinent politicians.

Ladies tend to be pragmatists, though they are unlikely to describe themselves as such.

Do you have any questions after part one in this series?

I hope you are still feeling switched on.  Science is a large subject with many specialties within it, much like a quality p√Ętisserie.

The basic recipe for scientific research is quite simple.

Do you ever use electricity for heating or cooling your home or your food?

You may know something already about mains electricity.  You may also know something about batteries.

I briefly mentioned light and sound in part one.  In fact, Light was my surname until recently.

Please ask me to pause for a few moments if you find this part to be too challenging.  I will do my best to keep the language as simple as possible.

Pausing for water is usually a good idea when thirsty, though you will probably not require anything to drink at present, at least if you replenished yourself sufficiently during the interval.

The interval itself was deliberately a long pause.  Relaxation and replenishment are as necessary as knowledge.

The need for replenishment is much like a red light.  Any red light usually signifies potential danger.

As well as replenishment, even ladies need to rid the body of waste substances.

I hope you managed to rid your body of wastes sufficiently during the interval, in the most appropriate locations for such purposes.

Now, I hope you are ready to continue.

You may be seeking to experience a magnetic levitation today.

You may also be seeking to understand the mysteries of economic policies.

You may already have been attempting to understand the difference between a conspiracy theory and a scientific theory, too.

A conspiracy theory is one without any evidence at all whereas a scientific theory has at least a little evidence to back it up.

Either sort of theory can be difficult to prove, until proof is provided.

At number 31 in the Mozarty Party Climatologically Cool 100 countdown is the Piano Concerto No. 13 in C major, K. 415 (387b).  The work expresses analysis rather than synthesis.  It begins by waking up the audience, to ensure their attentiveness.

In view of this, here are a few rather overwhelming questions:

What is electricity?

What is magnetism?

What is electromagnetism?

What is force?

You may be aware of Coulomb's law in relation to classical electromagnetism.

You also know about covalent bonds and electron pairs.

You may even be able to explain something about the atoms of chemical elements and their placing in the periodic table.

Your explanation will most probably include evidence of your knowledge of atomic numbers and electron configuration.

Many scientific ladies prefer their opinions to oscillate in the direction of new evidence.  Those ladies tend to be aware of all sorts of vibrations and waves.

They also do their best to stop evil brutes from disguising themselves as respectable male scientists or trustworthy female artists

Do you usually discuss science and ethics on The Social Media Show?

Before the Climatologically Cool 100 continues, do you know anything about string theory?

Do you know anything about the nucleic acid double helix?

Do you ever consider science laboratories to be real community venues?

The reason I ask is because next, at number 30, is the String Duo No. 1 in G major for violin and viola, K. 423.

What is a field in physics?

What is an electromagnetic field?

What is an electric charge?

What is electric potential?

The string duo intertwines the two instruments.  It is an experiment in the style of another composer but surpasses it in technical expertise.

There are many analogies in scientific thought just as there are many analogies in the arts.  For example, there is the atomic nucleus and the cell nucleus.  The word nuclear derives its meaning from kernel, seed and nut.

A lady scientist has, throughout history, often been considered to be somewhat nutty.  Even so, 21st century female scientists are usually aware that the word kernel now has many different meanings.

Sometimes, non-scientific ladies mistake the word kernel for the word colonel.  That is quite understandable.

There are people who believe now, as in history, that women do not require any sort of education.  They are meant, in such opinions, to be either decorative creatures or beasts of burden.

Have you ever considered all the scientific knowledge required to decorate a house safely?

Do you know what is in paint and furniture finishes? 

Are you aware of the chemical constituents of plasterwork and floor tiles?

Do you know how much energy is consumed in the production and transportation of cement, house bricks, floor tiles and window panes?

Why does light pass through glass but not through cement?

What is a good electrical conductor and what is a good electrical insulator?

Where do the chemical elements within electrical wiring and water pipes originate?

There are many questions for ladies to answer, whether they are scientists or not.  This is particularly the case if they happen to be mothers.

Why does an electron always have negative charge?

Why does a proton always have a positive charge?

Why does a neutron always have a neutral charge?

Children have a habit of asking difficult questions though answers most suitable for them usually require simple language:

How would you explain an electron to a child?

How would you explain an election to a child?

Children need orderly yet creative lives if they are to thrive.

A system signifies order.  A lack of a system signifies disorder.

Another name for disorder is randomness.

There are many types of systems.  There are many types of social systems and political systems.

Systems can often be studied mathematically, not just in terms of quantity but also in terms of the structure of sets.

A family is a system in the context of the nucleic acid double helix.

The mathematical measurement of the three-dimensions of space is also usefully applied in the study of systems.  Ascertaining boundaries is particularly important when conducting any sort of scientific study.

What is a photon?

What is radiant energy?

What is radiometry?

What is photometry?

A mathematical analysis will assist with understanding limits.

Ladies do their best to limit their experiences of pregnancy and childbirth, particularly when not in the vicinity of proper scientific care for those conditions.

Unfortunately, many ladies are inadequately supported in the social situations in which they find themselves.

All persons require an appropriate education from a very young age.  Unfortunately, many ladies have not receive an appropriate education in the sciences, including the reproductive sciences.

The study of reproduction should be balanced with studies into ways to prevent oneself from reproducing unnecessarily.  There are many genetic faults and economic faults in the world.  There are also many political faults and geological faults.  These must all be suitably considered in scientific and mathematical terms.

All technology is a consequence of the application of lessons from nature and culture.

Next in the Mozarty Party Climatologically Cool 100 countdown, at number 29 is the concerto for two pianos in E-flat major, K. 365/316a.

You may have speculated as to whether the work is a form of code between the Mozart siblings.  Many people have sought to decipher mathematical patterns in Mozart's works.

The study of arithmetic, also known as number theory, will assist with the understanding of integers.  Whether it assists with the interpretation of music has been a subject of much scientific investigation.

Sound is about vibrations.  Those vibrations can be measured and interpreted mathematically.

Elections are usually about numbers and limits within spaces and systems known as electorates.  There is much choreography involved in elections, most of which is not particularly artistic.

An understanding of geometry is associated with the properties of space, the position of objects in space, and the shape and size of those objects.  Geometry and choreography have much in common.

While arithmetic studies numbers and their operations, it differs from algebra in that the latter examines mathematical symbols and their rules of manipulation.

At number 28 in the Mozarty Party Climatologically Cool 100 is the Rondo for Piano and Orchestra in D major, K. 382.  The work is notable for containing variations.

You may have some acquaintance with scientific variations, known as variables.

There are many variables in nature, as with music.  Life would be very boring without them.

Do you believe there to be a scientific relationship between serious music and gravity?

What do you understand about the history of opinions on relationships between religion and science?

Where do you usually find proofs to demonstrate the truth of your own claims about the universe and human behaviour?

When deliberating on important matters in the face of obstinate refusals to examine evidence reasonably, you are probably aware that wit is the only antidote to exasperation.

Exasperation is often expressed through a sudden expiration, known as a sigh.

You may know that a sigh is an example of meta-communication, known as paralanguage.

The work at number 28 in the countdown is the Mass in G major, K. 49/47d.  Mozart wrote it at the age of twelve.  The year was 1768.

What is mass?

What is gravitational radiation?

What is gravity?

What are tides?

What are the properties of water?

What is your understanding of the origins of the universe?

What is your understanding of engineering?

What is fluid mechanics?

What is membrane potential?

Mathematics may be able to calculate the initial condition of a situation yet many systems are highly complex.  Seeking an understanding of patterns amongst chaos can often be difficult.

Randomness is kept at bay through the expression of a physical constant.

Stability is at the core of many natural systems and processes.

What are natural phenomena and what are not?

Natural processes and systems often seek equilibrium.

Biological processes and systems usually seek homeostasis.

How can you prove your answers to such questions are absolutely accurate?

Many ladies are involved in running households and societies.  They interact with natural phenomena at all times whilst doing so.

Conducting experiments within households is much easier than conducting them in society more generally, though matters concerning privacy and decorum apply everywhere.

Ladies are particularly keen to maintain moral integrity, not only regarding their own actions but the actions of everyone.  They understand the basis of informed consent.  They understand the moral aspects involved when humans are the subjects of research.

What is your personal understanding of scientific research?

What have been your personal experiences of various types of research?

What is your knowledge of scientific misconduct?

What is your knowledge of academic dishonesty?

What is your knowledge of knowledge?

What is your knowledge of policies and codes of conduct?

What is a neuron?

What is neuroscience?

What is neurology?

Ladies usually understand the moral aspects involved when animals are used in research.  Not only animals and children but also adults without sufficient enlightenment are unable, in any circumstance, to give informed consent to participation in any type of research, or any other activity for that matter.

As all ladies will be well aware, no observational study should be at all intrusive or otherwise abusive.

Ladies in the 21st century take an enlightened, scientific approach to their household and societal duties.  They never give a green light to unethical conduct.  They flash an amber signal as a warning whenever there are risks.  They shine a stop light at inappropriate activities.

The remaining ten parts in this twelve-part series are for lady patrons only.

If you have any questions, please relay them to me at the end of this presentation.

In the vestibule of the boudoir of Villa Twaklinilkawt is a concurrent series seminars on the science of ladylike behaviour.

The seminars in the vestibule are for all sorts of registered patrons.

At number 27 in the Mozarty Party Climatologically Cool 100 is Violin Sonata No. 33 in E-flat major, K. 481.  Mozart was 29 years old when he composed it.

When thinking of music and science, always remember that Einstein loved Mozart.